16. It is in Delhi’s interests to destabilize Islamabad as that would divert Pakistan’s focus from CPEC towards its internal affairs. Saturday, December 19, 2020. The Soviet Union accepted the Indo-Pak partition as legitimate. 27. 12, March 1997, p. 1603. A proxy war involves the use of third parties as substitutes for fighting each other directly while powers have sometimes even used governments as proxies. We cannot ignore proxy wars being initiated by other countries inside Pakistan and it is up to our elite agencies to ensure that they do not let this menace raise its head in our country. The strong business lobby has urged the US not to impose sanctions against India. American fears and assumptions became more intense when India exploded a nuclear bomb in May 1974. Much to the liking of China, Pakistan's role in engaging India on its western border is not diminishing.20, The year 1998 is crucial for both India and Pakistan which openly expressed their nuclear capability by conducting nuclear tests. Terms & Conditions, Copyright © 2020 Daily Times Website Developed By Daily Times Developers. Thus, the Soviet Union vetoed all the resolutions in the Security Council which did not aim for ceasefire and recognition of the will of East Pakistan's population. Latest News Sodhi "Living with Neighbours: Pakistan" Defence Today, vol. The disputes between India and Pakistan, though regional in nature, were exploited by the Great Powers in their Cold War politics. The Prime Ministers of India and Pakistan met at Tashkent on January 3, 1966. Only cooperation can help in fostering peace and cooperation in the region. After the war, the Government of India tried to resolve the differences with Pakistan on a new and firm basis. A proxy war involves the use of third parties as substitutes for fighting each other directly while powers have sometimes even used governments as proxies. 1. Direct involvement hurts the brand value of countries in the international arena so they employ proxy wars to engage other aggressors. The conference lasted from January 4-10, 1966, at which they agreed to create good relations in accordance with the UN Charter, to promote understanding and friendly relations and a total pull-out of troops before February 25, 1966 to their pre-war positions.8 Russia emerged as a peace-maker at a time when the US was involved in the Vietnam War. Pakistan's nuclear programme began in the mid-1950s when the Pakistan Energy Commission was set up under the Chairmanship of Nazir Ahmed. Subsequently, the Soviets despatched a force of six vessels to the Indian Ocean. 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However, the most notable feature after partition was Pakistan's fear of India's strength which outclasses it in every comparison. 133, p. 1605. The root of the Indo-Pak confrontation stemmed from the communal antagonism which was deep-rooted in the demographic distribution of their territories. Economic Conditions of Pakistan, the Most Recent Economic Survey, the Previous and Current Budgets, and the Problems and Performance of Major Sectors of Economy. Turkey shot down the fighter planes of Russia in Syria. 2. Conventional warfare finds itself slowly being replaced by the emergence of modern warfare. - It is the US which started the first proxy war in Afghanistan against the USSR using Pakistan and thus introducing the idea of proxy war in this region. In 1973, the US decided to modify its policy of arms embargo on Pakistan by permitting the sale of non-lethal equipment and spare parts. Internal Enemies Following are Pakistan’s major internal enemies Lack of Nationalism: Lack of nationalism gave rise to many Pakistan. They have created tensions here, and have also helped in resolving some tensions; they have created problems but have kept them from escalating into unmanageable propositions. NOW PLAYING: Travel Pakistan still fighting proxy wars, says Rajnath Singh, also targets China The Times of India As discussed earlier, the ceasefire line between India and Pakistan stops at Point NJ9842; beyond the point lies the Siachen Glacier after which the border between India and Pakistan has not been demarcated. The Russian policy towards the subcontinent also underwent some changes. The Pokhran explosion had led the US to think about matters of proliferation. The Tibetan uprising in 1959 led India to buy transport planes and helicopters from the Soviet Union as the Soviets were prepared to accept payment in Indian currency. Refer Nisha Sahai Achuthan, Soviet Arms Transfer Policy in South Asia 1955-81 (New Delhi: Lancers International, 1988), pp. 1-2, February-March 1995, p. 42. 29. Muni, "The Emerging Cold War in Asia: India's Options," Strategic Analysis, vol. Benchmarks . The US had supported Pakistan in the Security Council, and in 1957, had attempted to introduce a United Nations Force for Jammu and Kashmir which did not come into effect because of the Soviet veto. 4. Refer H.S. It was a time when the imperialist nations, regardless of which side they were on during WWII, found a common interest in stopping the spread of Communism and seeking the destruction of the Soviet Union. America had been constantly supplying weapons to Pakistan in pursuance of its policy of the Containment of Communism which was further aggravated by the presence of the Soviets in Afghanistan and the collapse of its Iranian ally. A proxy war is an armed conflict between two states or non-state actors which act on the instigation or on behalf of other parties that are not directly involved in the hostilities. Because of the perceived pro-Azerbaijan and pro-Turkey policies implemented by Pakistan, Armenia has developed friendly relations with India , and supports the Indian position on the Kashmir conflict. Meanwhile the Indo-Pak conflict was being discussed at the United Nations. 19, no. Until recently, Pakistan was prepared to sign the treaty provided India did so.35 However, in July 1998, Pakistan delinked its reasons for not signing the treaty from India and stated its own security compulsions as the guiding force. The Pakistani nuclear programme received a momentum by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. 108-109. Hence, for the supply of weapons, reliance on outside suppliers, mainly the UK and later France, had to continue. Home The neutral stand taken by the US during the September 1965 War further infuriated Pakistan as it had expected the US to use its influence to stop the Indian invasion across the international line which threatened Pakistan's independence. (London: Oxford University Press, 1983), p. 31. China is still a key player in providing arms to Pakistan. ... Central Asian States are Pakistan’s worst external enemies. In 1956, India's first research reactor, Apsara, was commissioned at Trombay which received uranium from the UK. It was believed that the Indian nuclear weapons would compel China and Pakistan to change their attitude of hostility towards India. The US is critical of the Chinese transfer of technology to Pakistan to manufacture nuclear weapons, and components to make M-11 intermediate range ballistic missile in violation of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). On one side, there is an indirect conflict between nuclear rivals: Pakistan and India. In order to avoid dependence on one supplier, Pakistan gradually moved towards China. The Indo-Pakistan War started on December 3 which also witnessed the active involvement of the Great Powers. 2, no. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. The Pakistan Institute of Science and Technology established at Nilore, near Rawalpindi, in 1965, provided research and training facilities for scientists and technicians in the country. For example, Pakistan's willingness to accommodate the American interests not only brought the external power into the subcontinent but also strengthened its confrontationist anti-India stance. There are nearly 105 training camps in POK and nearly eight on the Pak-Afghan border, handled entirely by the Pakistan Army and the ISI. Direct involvement hurts the brand value of countries in the international arena so they employ proxy wars to engage other aggressors. Both countries declared a moratorium on further nuclear tests; however, the focus shifted from the nuclear issue to the Kashmir issue--which has been an irritant since partition in 1947--and the signing of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). This was the first declaration by the Indian government favouring nuclear weapons.13 Indian anxiety over the Chinese nuclear programme had never diminished since 1964; in fact, with the launching of China's first nuclear missile in October 1966, Indian concerns became more critical.14 The Indian debate on the bomb became more intense when China launched its first satellite in 1970. The Indian nuclear programme was given a practical shape in 1948 when an Atomic Energy Commission was set up to advise the government on nuclear issues. 36. The Pakistan Embassy in Nepal is reported to be providing financial assistance and transit facilities to the Kashmiri militants. Rajan, India's Foreign Policy and Relations (New Delhi: South Asian Publishers, 1985), pp. Refer Shrikant Paranjpe, US Non-Proliferation Policy in Action: South Asia (New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 1987), p. 22. external actors. 3, Autumn 1993, p. 123. Pakistan felt let down by the US which should have extended help to them as per the assurances given to them when Pakistan joined the South-East Asia Treaty Organisation (SEATO) and Central Treaty Organisation (CENTO). Any kind of war is a brutal expression of politics and realism. The Chinese scientists have been visiting Kahuta and China has provided a design of one of its own atomic bombs and enough highly enriched uranium for two bombs.19 The Chinese technological assistance to the Pakistani nuclear programme is to counter-balance India's dominance in the region. Refer V.D. Refer M.J. Vinod, "Kashmir and India-Pakistan Relations: Problems and Prospects," Strategic Analysis, vol. Pakistan holds assets in the form of separatist and radical religious groups in India-administered Kashmir and … 37. At one time, it looked as if a direct confrontation between the two external powers would take place in South Asia. This is neither desirable nor is it militarily achievable. The Western support to Pakistan over Kashmir was a clear manifestation of their global policy to support the countries willing to counter the Soviets.28 The US position has been to resolve the Kashmir dispute on the basis of the Simla Agreement. Britain also supported Pakistan in the Security Council. A proxy war is defined to be "a war fought between groups of smaller countries that each represent the interests of other larger powers, and may have help and support from these". India, too, has played a significant role in Afghanistan and, as alleged by the security establishment, inside Pakistan, particularly in Balochistan but also in Fata and other parts. 26. Investor Information The significance of the Bangladesh War on India's national security, apart from being militarily strategic, lay in the political and diplomatic spheres. The interest shown by China in the Indo-Pak subcontinent became a matter of concern to the American policy makers. 14. Major powers have been highlighted in bold. Hence, India and Pakistan started building their naval strength which has become a commendable force. Proxy wars conjure the image of cold war wherein the local combatants are supported by the external elements. Pakistan has mastered the craft of proxy war over the last three decades in Afghanistan and Kashmir. Pakistan's nuclear linkage with the Arab countries started around 1973 when an agreement was signed with Libya to finance Pakistan's acquisition of nuclear weapons.16 Pakistan's need was purely economic. Anarchy in the international arena has destroyed lives due to the demolition wreaked. The main support of the superpowers was displayed in the United Nations. Economic Conditions of Pakistan, the Most Recent Economic Survey, the Previous and Current Budgets, and the Problems and Performance of Major Sectors of Economy. 4, no. But the Arab nations wanted an Islamic country with nuclear weapons that could deter Israel. Understanding Pakistan’s irregular warfare is a study in itself and well beyond the scope of this article. Five-day Indo-Pak Summit talks began on June 28, 1972, at Simla. India has been both the target and the transit point for the narcotics. Nifty 13,717.85 35.15. India's dependence on England can also be attributed to its non-aligned policy of keeping out of the Cold War politics and it thus avoided purchase of arms either from the USA or the former USSR. General Zia, as a counter-step helped Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan (SSP), an anti-Shia Deobandi religious organization. The arms embargo fell heavily on Pakistan as it was dependent on American supplies. 35, no. The Bangladesh war and its impact on the power structure in South Asia, the Afghanistan crisis, the supply of advanced technology and weapons to Pakistan by China, a Pakistan oriented US foreign policy etc., have been the external situational inputs of Indian Foreign Policy. The superpowers gave the adversaries the needed assistance to go for war with the intention to transform this regional war into a proxy war. 31. In recent times, conflict in Syria is a prime example where Damascus represented a buffer state by global powers: Russia and the US. Japan has cut aid worth $26 million to India. Refer A. Appadorai and M.S. The freedom of India and Pakistan from the British rule was the beginning of another era filled with chaos, confusion, hatred, conflict. Pakistan has also linked its reluctance to sign the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and CTBT because of the Indian reservations on the treaties. The Cold War era was a new phase for international capital as it saw the advent of nuclear weapons and the beginning stages of proxy warfare. The national urge to occupy areas with prominent Muslim demographic pattern, notably Kashmir, is one of the primary aims of Pakistani foreign policy and military strategy. As discussed earlier, the external powers were indirectly involved in the regional wars (through arms aid) and actively involved in the Security Council, thus, exacerbating the already existing tensions. Many analyst say that Syrian war is a flight between US and Russia but US is fighting through Turkey (proxy) not directly. Arun Mohanty, "Russia Proposes P-5 mediation in J&K," The Pioneer, June 4, 1998. The US had been giving aircraft and airfield equipment to Pakistan under the pretext that India had obtained sophisticated weapons from the former USSR whereas Pakistan had inferior weapons from China and a small quantity from the US. 27. In phase one, low level insurgency in India was advocated which included planting people at key positions like police, financial institutions, etc; armed groups to be trained to meet the paramilitary forces; the lines of communications to be disrupted between Jammu and Kashmir; and exacerbation of anti-India feelings. And development of nuclear capabilities in and outside the Constitutional order of States field defence.11! The refugees whose numbers had reached approximately ten million France, Belgium, Canada and the Statesman May... Towards India version of the Great powers strategic depth. 1971 war witnessed! Ammunition flow from Pakistan occupied Kashmir occupied Kashmir ( new Delhi: Patriot Publishers 1985... 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